Endemic Species Found in Newly Developed Pools at Pohoiki
Where the historic Pohoiki boat ramp as become obsolete after the Kilauea eruption in 2018, new life is beginning to flourish on the newly created black sand beach in several anchialine pools.
The ever-growing beach is dotted with at least seven of these land-locked pools, which are brackish water pools connected to the ocean and groundwater through the underground.
“They fluctuate with tides and while they may seem like unassuming, little puddles of water they are home to an array of endemic species found only in Hawai‘i,” Troy Sakihara with DLNR Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR).
The most common aquatic creature found in Hawai‘i’s anchialine pools are ʻōpaeʻula, the tiny Hawaiian red shrimp. They’re popular in desktop aquariums and Sakihara describes them as very charismatic – not the least of which they’re ability to evolve and thrive in a variety of habitats like volcanic rock and sand.
Biologists are not surprised ʻōpaeʻula and other native shrimp are beginning to show up at Pohoiki and likely in other anchialine pools up and down the Puna coast that were inundated by lava flows. The where and how of their reappearance is still a bit of a mystery, but experts do know that they quickly re-inhabit bomb impact craters at places like Kaho‘olawe.
“It is still a question that we’re trying to answer as far as how they recruit so fast into these pools,” Sakihara said.
Historically, anchialine pools have been critical sources of fresh water, particularly in arid regions. Hawai‘i has the highest concentrate of these ponds in the world, with a conservative estimate of 600 out of a worldwide total of 1,000.
“These pools are really valuable resources – ecologically, biologically, and culturally. Our team is currently working on a rules package to provide better management strategies for anchialine pools. One of the things people can do right now is to stay out of these sensitive areas. Sunscreens and other body oils can degrade water quality and potentially kill creatures like the ʻōpaeʻula,” said DAR Administrator Brian Neilson.
Sakihara and Neilson advise beachgoers to should stay out of the pools.
“We want to educate folks and ask them not to disturb these pools and minimize their interactions with them. Please don’t swim or snorkel in them, as you may be killing some of the most endangered aquatic creatures in the state. Respect them and enjoy them, with your eyes, only,” Neilson said.